- The incidence gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) has dramatically risen over the last three decades, probably due to the increased detection of asymptomatic lesions. The diagnostic work-up for patients with suspected GEP-NENs is based on conventional imaging, endoscopy, pathology, and functional imaging, including 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET and 18F-FDG PET. The choice of the best treatment strategy should be based on the evaluation of tumor-related features and patient's characteristics.
- In patients with chronic refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) the precise timing for indication to colectomy is unclear.
- The overall prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer has improved in recent decades due to surgical and medical progress, but overall survival remains poor. Better patient selection and tailored treatment are needed. Different prognostic factors linked with the patient, tumoral characteristics and treatment with curative intent have been identified and are the purpose of this review. Tumor detection at an earlier stage, the advent of new molecules and therapeutic combinations, and the centralization of management in high-volume centers should help to improve the prognosis of esophageal cancer.
- Gastric cancer remains frequent and one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. In this article, we aimed to comprehensively review recent insights in the therapeutic management of gastric cancer, with focus on the surgical and perioperative management of resectable forms, and the latest advances regarding advanced diseases. Surgical improvements comprise the use of laparoscopic surgery including staging laparoscopy, a better definition of nodal dissection, and the development of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
- Pre-operative determination of the risk of liver dysfunction has come under criticism with regards to its usefulness in clinical practice. Opinion is split between centres which use such tests uniformly on all patients and those where clinical judgment alone is used. Published data would not suggest any difference in mortality, morbidity or liver failure rates between these groups. This review outlines and presents the evidence for pre-operative quantification of functional liver remnant volume.
- Endoscopic stent insertion is considered the method of choice for palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Nonetheless, relevant studies are often underpowered or outdated and do not compare actual surgical outcomes with latest stent technology. Purpose of this review was to assess, with an evidence-based methodology, the role of endoscopic versus surgical palliation of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice with special reference to clinical effectiveness, safety aspects and economic outcomes.