Vaccinations in patients with inflammatory bowel diseaseTreatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently requires administration of immunosuppressive therapies, which increases susceptibility to a number of infectious pathogens. However, many infections can be prevented by correct and appropriate utilization of vaccinations. While several guidelines have been published on vaccination schedules in patients with IBD, vaccination rates remain suboptimal and even lower than those in the general population. This is due to many factors including poor awareness of the importance of vaccines by gastroenterologists and general practitioners as well as potential prejudices of patients regarding the safety and benefits of vaccines.
Screening, prophylaxis and counselling before the start of biological therapies: A practical approach focused on IBD patientsThe standard of care in the management of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions relies on immunomodulators, glucocorticoids, and biologicals (including anti-tumour necrosis factor −α and other monoclonal antibodies). These agents have an overall favourable benefit/risk ratio; however, they modulate the immune response as part of their mechanisms of action, and therefore they may increase the risk of developing infections, particularly in older patients or in patients with concomitant corticosteroids.
Common issues in the management of patients in the waiting list and after liver transplantationThe present document contains the recommendations of an expert panel of transplant hepatologists, appointed by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF), on how to manage the most common aspects of liver transplantation: the topics covered include: new treatments for HCV in patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation; antiviral treatments in patients with HCV recurrence after liver transplantation; prophylaxis for HBV recurrence after liver transplantation; indications for liver transplantation in alcoholic liver disease; and Immunosuppressive therapy.
Prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B in immunocompromised patientsThe literature on hepatitis B virus (HBV) in immunocompromised patients is heterogeneous and referred mainly to the pre-antivirals era. Today a rational approach to the problem of hepatitis B in these patients provides for: (a) the evaluation of HBV markers and of liver condition in all subjects starting immunosuppressive therapies (baseline), (b) the treatment with antivirals (therapy) of active carriers, (c) the pre-emptive use of antivirals (prophylaxis) in inactive carriers, especially if they are undergoing immunosuppressive therapies judged to be at high risk, (d) the biochemical and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) monitoring (or universal prophylaxis, in case of high risk immunosuppression) in subjects with markers of previous contact with HBV (HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive), in order to prevent reverse seroconversion.
Daclizumab and Alemtuzumab as induction agents in adult intestinal and multivisceral transplantation: A comparison of two different regimens on 29 recipients during the early post-operative periodInduction therapy has been recently adopted for intestinal transplant.