- Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely prescribed medications worldwide and their use is continuously increasing. Although they have been shown to combine high therapeutic efficacy and good safety profile in many studies, in last years we have witnessed the publication of many articles reporting the possible association of long-term PPI therapy with important unexpected adverse events and these observations have created alarmism in both patients and physicians. However, the majority of these studies are observational, retrospective and prone to residual confounding.
- Patients with esophageal symptoms potentially associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease such as heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, or cough represent one of the most frequent reasons for referral to gastroenterological evaluation. The utility of esophageal reflux monitoring in clinical practice is: (1) to accurately define reflux burden, (2) to segregate patients according to reflux monitoring results as true GERD, reflux hypersensitivity and functional heartburn, and (3) to establish a treatment plan.
- For decades, millions of patients with acid-related disorders have had their acid inhibited effectively and safely first with H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and then with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). As with any pharmacological agent, PPIs have been reported to be associated with some adverse events, but several recent large-scale observational studies have evidenced new and serious abnormalities generally linked to their chronic use. However, these studies have often important limitations for their frequent retrospective design and other methodological drawbacks, such as selection biases of the analyzed populations and the presence of various confounding factors.
- Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa. Food and aero-allergens are involved in its pathogenesis. Dysphagia and food impaction are the dominant symptoms in adult with eosinophilic oesophagitis. However, a wide range of symptoms has been noticed such as chest pain or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms. Upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and oesophageal biopsies are crucial for the diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis.