- The incidence gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) has dramatically risen over the last three decades, probably due to the increased detection of asymptomatic lesions. The diagnostic work-up for patients with suspected GEP-NENs is based on conventional imaging, endoscopy, pathology, and functional imaging, including 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET and 18F-FDG PET. The choice of the best treatment strategy should be based on the evaluation of tumor-related features and patient's characteristics.
- In the 20th century early management of acute pancreatitis often included surgical intervention, despite overwhelming mortality. The emergence of high-quality evidence (randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses) over the past two decades has notably shifted the treatment paradigm towards predominantly non-surgical management early in the course of acute pancreatitis. The present evidence-based review focuses on contemporary aspects of early management (which include analgesia, fluid resuscitation, antibiotics, nutrition, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) with a view to providing clear and succinct guidelines on early management of patients with acute pancreatitis in 2017 and beyond.
- Digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms (DNENs) have an incidence of 2.39 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, and a prevalence of 35 cases per 100,000; the gap between these rates is to be referred to the relatively long survival that characterizes the majority of these tumors, which can be thus considered as chronic oncological diseases. Up to 80% of patients are stage IV since the first diagnosis, presenting a 5-yr overall survival rate of 35%–55% and a twice higher mortality than limited disease. DNENs express somatostatin receptors in more than 80% of cases, detected through immunohistochemistry or functional imaging tests (FITs).
- Safety of non-operative management for low-risk branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) is debated.
- Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms have substantially increased over the last decades. Because of the indolent clinical course of the disease even in advance stages and the rise in the incidental diagnosis of small asymptomatic lesions, the prevalence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms is higher than that of pancreatic, gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinomas, making them the second most prevalent cancer type of the gastrointestinal tract. This increase in the overall prevalence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms has been paralleled by a growth in the importance of the endoscopist in the care of these patients, who usually require a multidisciplinary approach.
- In Italy, pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of tumor related death with about 7000 new cases per year and a mortality rate of 95%. In a recent prospective epidemiological study on the Italian population, a family history was found in about 10% of patients suffering from a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC). A position paper from the Italian Registry for Familial Pancreatic Cancer was made to manage these high-risk individuals. Even though in the majority of high-risk individuals a genetic test to identify familial predisposition is not available, a screening protocol seems to be reasonable for subjects who have a >10-fold greater risk for the development of PDAC.