Polycystic liver diseasesPolycystic liver diseases (PCLDs) are genetic disorders with heterogeneous etiologies and a range of phenotypic presentations. PCLD exhibits both autosomal or recessive dominant pattern of inheritance and is characterized by the progressive development of multiple cysts, isolated or associated with polycystic kidney disease, that appear more extensive in women. Cholangiocytes have primary cilia, functionally important organelles (act as mechanosensors) that are involved in both normal developmental and pathological processes.
New insights into liver stem cellsHepatic progenitor cells are bi-potential stem cells residing in human and animal livers that are able to differentiate towards the hepatocytic and the cholangiocytic lineages. In adult livers, hepatic progenitor cells are quiescent stem cells with a low proliferating rate, representing a reserve compartment that is activated only when the mature epithelial cells of the liver are continuously damaged or inhibited in their replication, or in cases of severe cell loss. Hepatic progenitor cell activation has been described in various acute and chronic liver diseases.