The application of artificial intelligence in hepatology: A systematic reviewThe integration of human and artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine has only recently begun but it has already become obvious that intelligent systems can dramatically improve the management of liver diseases. Big data made it possible to envisage transformative developments of the use of AI for diagnosing, predicting prognosis and treating liver diseases, but there is still a lot of work to do. If we want to achieve the 21st century digital revolution, there is an urgent need for specific national and international rules, and to adhere to bioethical parameters when collecting data.
Gut-liver axis and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: An input for novel therapiesNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a multifactorial condition, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with or without fibrosis. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alteration of gut microbiota and increased intestinal permeability increase exposure of the liver to gut-derived bacterial products: lipopolysaccharides and unmethylated CpG DNA. These products stimulate innate immune receptors, namely Toll-like receptors, which activate signalling pathways involved in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis.