Quality of life in patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and the impact of treatment: A narrative reviewAs a chronic inflammatory disease, ulcerative colitis has significant negative impact on the quality of life (QoL) of patients. Since the disease affects many aspects of QoL, comprising multiple domains, treatments that induce and maintain remission can provide benefits beyond hard clinical endpoints. Effective treatment of ulcerative colitis can restore QoL and return it to normal or near normal levels. Biological therapies have shown consistent improvement in the QoL of patients with ulcerative colitis during the induction phase, with benefits that are generally maintained in the long-term.
Histopathology of non-IBD colitis practical recommendations from pathologists of IG-IBD GroupPathologists are often called upon to diagnose colitides that differ from the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These non-IBD colitides include infectious colitis, microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, eosinophilic colitis, autoimmune enterocolitis, segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis, drug-induced colitis, radiation colitis and diversion colitis. The diagnosis of these different disease entities relies on the histopathological examination of endoscopic biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract.
Gastrointestinal endoscopy in children and adults: How do they differ?Gastrointestinal endoscopy has grown dramatically over the past century, and with subsequent improvements in technology and anaesthesia, it has become a safe and useful tool for evaluation of GI pathology in children. There are substantial differences between paediatric and adult endoscopy beyond size, including: age-related patho-physiology and the different spectrum of diseases in children. Literature on endoscopic procedures in children is sparse but significant. The present review aims at describing the current knowledges on paediatric endoscopy practice and highlights the main areas of differences between paediatric and adult practice.
Kidney function monitoring to prevent 5-aminosalicylic acid nephrotoxicity: What the gastroenterologist should knowThe kidney function monitoring is recommended in routine practice to detect 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) related nephrotoxicity, although is not standardized. The optimal monitoring is unknown, especially the best timing and which tests to perform. We summarized why, how, and when to perform the monitoring for patients treated with 5-ASA and provided an overview of the current guidelines on this topic.
Inflammatory bowel diseases and the risk of adverse health outcomes: Umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studiesAccumulating evidence indicates a plausible association between inflammatory bowel diseases and the risk of adverse health outcomes. However, the conclusions are inconsistent. We aimed to perform an umbrella review of meta-analyses to appraise and grade the evidence of the association between inflammatory bowel diseases and the risk of adverse health outcomes.
From inflammation to colitis-associated colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: Pathogenesis and impact of current therapiesThe risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Population-based data from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) estimate that the risk of CRC is approximately 2- to 3-fold that of the general population; patients with Crohn's disease appear to have a similar increased risk. However, the true extent of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in undertreated IBD is unclear. Data suggest that the size (i.e., severity and extent) and persistence of the inflammatory process is largely responsible for the development of CRC in IBD.
Systematic assessment of environmental factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analysesSide effects of long-term acid suppression have increased the scholars’ interest in nonpharmacologic intervention.
IBDs and the pediatric age: Their peculiarities and the involvement of the microbiotaInflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs) are gastrointestinal disorders characterized by chronic, relapsing inflammation, with growing incidence worldwide over the last decades and distinctive features in the pediatric age. An increasing body of evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a major role in inflammatory disorders, including IBDs. In this review we will discuss the most recent evidences on dysbiotic changes associated with gut inflammation, as well as environmental and genetic factors contributing to IBD pathogenesis, with a focus on the peculiarities of the pediatric age.
Current status of systemic therapy in hepatocellular cancerHepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a common cancer and an important cause of cancer-related death globally. Although surgery is the primary curative treatment, most patients at diagnosis are not surgical candidates and are treated with liver-directed therapy and or systemic therapy. Over the past decade, the systemic treatment options for patients with advanced HCC have evolved. This paper reviews recent progress in systemic therapy and the results of major clinical trials involving novel compounds in patients with HCC.
Medical therapy versus surgery in moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the colon from rectum to caecum, is characterized by periods of increased bowel movements, blood in feces, rectal urgency, tenesmus, and abdominal pain, with periods of remission and flares of disease, which negatively impact quality of life. A number of therapeutic options are available for patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis, however, no clear treatment algorithm exists. Therapeutic goals include short-term benefits for patients (i.e., the reduction/absence of symptoms, essentially stool frequency and rectal bleeding) and long-term benefits (i.e., sustained clinical remission, steroid-free remission, and mucosal healing).
Update on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumorsThe incidence gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) has dramatically risen over the last three decades, probably due to the increased detection of asymptomatic lesions. The diagnostic work-up for patients with suspected GEP-NENs is based on conventional imaging, endoscopy, pathology, and functional imaging, including 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET and 18F-FDG PET. The choice of the best treatment strategy should be based on the evaluation of tumor-related features and patient's characteristics.
Regenerative hepatology: In the quest for a modern prometheus?As liver-related morbidity and mortality is rising worldwide and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains the only standard-of-care for end-stage liver disease or acute liver failure, shortage of donor organs is becoming more prominent. Importantly, advances in regenerative Hepatology and liver bioengineering are bringing new hope to the possibility of restoring impaired hepatic functionality in the presence of acute or chronic liver failure. Hepatocyte transplantation and artificial liver-support systems were the first strategies used in regenerative hepatology but have presented various types of efficiency limitations restricting their widespread use.
Addressing long-term PPI safetyThe advent of antisecretory drugs, such H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has revolutionized the management of acid-related diseases, leading to the virtual abolition of elective surgery for ulcer disease and relegating anti-reflux surgery to patients with reflux disease not adequately managed by medical therapy. PPIs remain the mainstay of medical treatment for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) [1–3]. They act indirectly by reducing the amount and concentration of gastric secretion available for reflux, thus lessening the aggressive power of the refluxed material .
Enhancing treatment success in inflammatory bowel disease: Optimising the use of anti-TNF agents and utilising their biosimilars in clinical practiceAnti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents such as infliximab and adalimumab have greatly altered the treatment landscape in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, there are remaining unmet needs and opportunities to optimise their use. Recent data suggest that proactive therapeutic drug monitoring may lead to more efficient usage of these agents, with potential for higher rates of corticosteroid-free clinical remission than with reactive monitoring. Expanded application of faecal calprotectin measurements may also be valuable, given the ease of use of the assay and its proven effectiveness as a diagnostic tool and predictor of relapse risk.
Safety of probiotics in humans: A dark side revealed?The term probiotic (i.e. “for life”, from the Latin and Greek words pro and bios) is relatively new, being officially introduced in 1953 by the German physician Werner Kollath  to designate “active substances that are essential for a healthy development of life”, though its modern definition is closer to Parker's (1974) “organisms and substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance” . In 2001 WHO/FAO proposed “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” , definition substantially left unchanged by The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in 2014 .
Increased risk of acute liver failure by pain killer drugs in NAFLD: Focus on nuclear receptors and their coactivatorsNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global condition characterized by an accumulation of lipids in the hepatocytes. NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis, a reversible and relatively benign condition, to fibrosis with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), potentially leading to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. NAFLD can increase the susceptibility to severe liver injury with eventual acute liver failure induced by specific hepatotoxic drugs, including acetaminophen (APAP), which is commonly used as analgesic and antipyretic.
What gastroenterologists should know about direct oral anticoagulantsDirect oral anticoagulants are being increasingly used in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism, due to their improved efficacy/ safety ratio, a predictable anticoagulant effect without need for routine coagulation monitoring, and fewer food and drug interactions compared with vitamin K antagonists. Gastrointestinal bleeding remains a serious complication, whose management is challenging for gastroenterologists due to the lack of a standardized clinical approach.
Latest insights into the hot question of proton pump inhibitor safety – a narrative reviewProton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely prescribed medications worldwide and their use is continuously increasing. Although they have been shown to combine high therapeutic efficacy and good safety profile in many studies, in last years we have witnessed the publication of many articles reporting the possible association of long-term PPI therapy with important unexpected adverse events and these observations have created alarmism in both patients and physicians. However, the majority of these studies are observational, retrospective and prone to residual confounding.
A SIGE-SINGEM-AIGO technical review on the clinical use of esophageal reflux monitoringPatients with esophageal symptoms potentially associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease such as heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, or cough represent one of the most frequent reasons for referral to gastroenterological evaluation. The utility of esophageal reflux monitoring in clinical practice is: (1) to accurately define reflux burden, (2) to segregate patients according to reflux monitoring results as true GERD, reflux hypersensitivity and functional heartburn, and (3) to establish a treatment plan.
Apnea in preterm neonates: what's the role of gastroesophageal reflux? A systematic reviewA causal relationship between gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and apnea in preterm infants has been frequently hypothesized and is currently debated. The present study aims at reviewing the currently available scientific evidence, in order to clarify the role of GER on the occurrence of apnea and to help improving the clinical management of apneic preterm neonates. We performed a systematic literature search to identify all the clinical studies on preterm neonates that properly assessed the relationship between apnea and GER.
The coeliac stomach: A review of the literatureBeyond the small intestine, coeliac disease (CeD) may affect other gastrointestinal tracts, including the stomach. However, various studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between CeD and gastric manifestations. The aim of this study was to analyze the existing literature on gastric involvement in CeD. A literature search was conducted in bibliographic databases of Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Studies reporting the association between CeD and gastric disorders were examined in detail and are fully described in the review.
Liver involvement in Gaucher disease: A practical review for the hepatologist and the gastroenterologistGaucher disease (GD), a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient glucocerebrosidase activity and consequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the mononuclear phagocyte system, may progress to disabling and potentially life-threatening complications when left undiagnosed and untreated. Unfortunately, because of non-specific signs and symptoms and lack of awareness, patients with type 1 GD, the most common non-neuropathic variant, frequently experience diagnostic delays. Since splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia are the dominant clinical features in many GD patients leading to first medical contact, the hepatologist and the gastroenterologist need to be aware of this condition.
AISF update on the diagnosis and management of adult-onset lysosomal storage diseases with hepatic involvementLysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding for lysosomal enzymes/proteins. The consequence is a progressive accumulation of substrates in these intracellular organelles, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. The overall incidence is about 1/8000 live births, but is likely underestimated. LSDs are chronic progressive multi-systemic disorders, generally presenting with visceromegaly, and involvement of the central nervous system, eyes, the skeleton, and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
Understanding short bowel syndrome: Current status and future perspectivesShort bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare malabsorptive disorder as a result of the loss of bowel mass mostly secondary to surgical resection of the small intestine. Other causes are vascular diseases, neoplasms or inflammatory bowel disease. The spectrum of the disease is widely variable from single micronutrient malabsorption to complete intestinal failure, depending on the remaining length of the small intestine, the anatomical portion of intestine and the function of the remnant bowel. Over the last years, the management of affected patients has remarkably improved with the increase in patients’ quality of life and survival, mainly thanks to advances in home-based parenteral nutrition (PN).
Pediatric liver diseases and ocular changes: What hepatologists and ophthalmologists should know and share with each otherSeveral rare pediatric liver disorders are accompanied by ophthalmic signs whose awareness and early identification may be of value in confirming/accelerating their diagnosis. Many of these signs are asymptomatic and can only be detected with an ophthalmological examination. Corneal signs are described in patients with Wilson’s disease, Alagille’s syndrome and some liver storage diseases. Cataract plays an important role to diagnose galactosemia. Retinal involvement is seen in some peroxisomal disorders (e.g.