Primary Biliary Cholangitis: advances in management and treatment of the diseasePrimary Biliary Cholangitis, previously known as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, is a rare disease, which mainly affects women in their fifth to seventh decades of life. It is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive damage of interlobular bile ducts leading to ductopenia, chronic cholestasis and bile acids retention. Even if the disease usually presents a long asymptomatic phase and a slow progression, in many patients it may progress faster toward cirrhosis and its complications.
Liver carcinogenesis: Rodent models of hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinomaHepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma are primary liver cancers, both represent a growing challenge for clinicians due to their increasing morbidity and mortality. In the last few years a number of in vivo models of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma have been developed. The study of these models is providing a significant contribution in unveiling the pathophysiology of primary liver malignancies. They are also fundamental tools to evaluate newly designed molecules to be tested as new potential therapeutic agents in a pre-clinical set.
Recent advances in the regulation of cholangiocyte proliferation and function during extrahepatic cholestasisBile duct epithelial cells (i.e., cholangiocytes), which line the intrahepatic biliary epithelium, are the target cells in a number of human cholestatic liver diseases (termed cholangiopathies). Cholangiocyte proliferation and death is present in virtually all human cholangiopathies. A number of recent studies have provided insights into the key mechanisms that regulate the proliferation and function of cholangiocytes during the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases. In our review, we have summarised the most important of these recent studies over the past 3 years with a focus on those performed in the animal model of extrahepatic bile duct ligation.