Recent advances in the regulation of cholangiocyte proliferation and function during extrahepatic cholestasisBile duct epithelial cells (i.e., cholangiocytes), which line the intrahepatic biliary epithelium, are the target cells in a number of human cholestatic liver diseases (termed cholangiopathies). Cholangiocyte proliferation and death is present in virtually all human cholangiopathies. A number of recent studies have provided insights into the key mechanisms that regulate the proliferation and function of cholangiocytes during the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases. In our review, we have summarised the most important of these recent studies over the past 3 years with a focus on those performed in the animal model of extrahepatic bile duct ligation.
Cholangiocarcinoma: Update and future perspectivesCholangiocarcinoma is commonly considered a rare cancer. However, if we consider the hepato-biliary system a single entity, cancers of the gallbladder, intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic biliary tree altogether represent approximately 30% of the total with incidence rates close to that of hepatocellular carcinoma, which is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In addition, cholangiocarcinoma is characterized by a very poor prognosis and virtually no response to chemotherapeutics; radical surgery, the only effective treatment, is not frequently applicable because late diagnosis.