Outcomes of transarterial embolization for large symptomatic focal nodular hyperplasia in 17 pediatric patients

Published:January 18, 2023DOI:



      To evaluate the safety and the long-term outcomes of transarterial embolization (TAE) with lipiodol-bleomycin emulsion (LBE) plus N-Butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in the treatment of children with large symptomatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH).


      This is a retrospective case serial study. Children (aged <18 years) with FNH were treated. Indications for TAE were patients who were presenting with FNH related abdominal pain and the maximum diameter of FNH is more than 7 cm, and who were not candidates for surgical treatment. Technical success, adverse events, symptoms relief rate, and changes in the lesion size after TAE were evaluated.


      Between January 2003 and February 2018, 17 pediatric patients were included. Technical success was achieved in all patients. Mean follow-up was 67.5 months. All patients had complete resolution of abdominal symptom. The mean largest diameter of the lesions decreased from 10.5 cm to 1.9 cm (P < 0.01). The mean volume reduction rate was 96.9%. The complete resolution of the FNH was observed in 16 patients. No further therapy was needed for all patients.


      TAE with LBE plus NBCA appears to be a safe and effective treatment in pediatric patients with large symptomatic FNH. It could be considered as the first-line treatment for symptomatic large FNH.


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