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Sarcopenia in chronic advanced liver diseases: A sex-oriented analysis of the literature

Published:November 14, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.10.010

      Abstract

      Sarcopenia, defined as progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength, is common in chronic liver disease. It significantly impacts the quality of life and increases the risk of liver-related complications and mortality in cirrhotic patients. Moreover, recent studies showed a negative impact of sarcopenia on patients awaiting liver transplantation (LT), on post-LT outcomes, and on response to hepatocellular carcinoma therapies. Data about the influence of sex on the incidence, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of sarcopenia in chronic liver diseases are poor and conflicting. The aims of this review of the literature are to define sex differences in sarcopenic cirrhotic patients and to highlight the necessity of a sex stratified analysis in future studies. This analysis of the literature showed that most of the studies are retrospective, with a higher prevalence of sarcopenia in males, probably due to anatomical differences between the sexes. Moreover, diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia are different between studies, as there is not a defined cut-off and, as a consequence, no comparable results. In conclusion, sex seems to have an impact on sarcopenia, and future studies must accurately investigate its role in identifying and treating high-risk patients, reducing the negative impact of sarcopenia on the survival and quality of life of cirrhotic patients.

      Keywords

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