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Distinctive features of hepatocellular carcinoma in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

      Abstract

      Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is on the rise globally, causing more than 800 thousand deaths annually, with an estimated annual percent change of 0.51 for causes other than viral hepatitis, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The incidence of NAFLD-related HCC is peaking in several Far East regions (6–12% vs. 2–3% in Western Europe and USA), HCC risk being mainly driven by the epidemic of obesity and diabetes, both favored by an unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle. Under inherited susceptibility outlined by such genetic markers as variants in PNPLA3, TM6SF2 and MBOAT7, neoplastic transformation of NAFLD is driven by sublethal lipotoxicity consequent to hepatocyte lipid overload, whereas a myriad of factors spanning from subverted circadian homeostasis and gut dysbiosis to alcohol abuse and tobacco may interact as risk modifiers. At variance with viral HCC, NAFLD-HCC shows a frequent association with cardiovascular co-morbidities, absence of cirrhosis in up to half of patients and an association with persistently normal transaminase values. All these misleading features of NAFLD-related HCC account for the low uptake of surveillance and linkage to curative treatments that has been reported in patients with this cancer, a downside that could be attenuated when scores for cost-effective risk stratification become available.

      Keywords

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