Alimentary Tract| Volume 53, ISSUE 9, P1141-1147, September 2021

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Clinical management and patient outcomes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A multicenter, prospective, cohort study

Published:January 25, 2021DOI:


      Background & aim

      Although acute lower GI bleeding (LGIB) represents a significant healthcare burden, prospective real-life data on management and outcomes are scanty. Present multicentre, prospective cohort study was aimed at evaluating mortality and associated risk factors and at describing patient management.


      Adult outpatients acutely admitted for or developing LGIB during hospitalization were consecutively enrolled in 15 high-volume referral centers. Demographics, comorbidities, medications, interventions and outcomes were recorded.


      Overall 1,198 patients (1060 new admissions;138 inpatients) were included. Most patients were elderly (mean-age 74±15 years), 31% had a Charlson-Comorbidity-Index ≥3, 58% were on antithrombotic therapy. In-hospital mortality (primary outcome) was 3.4% (95%CI 2.5–4.6). At logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of mortality were increasing age, comorbidity, inpatient status, hemodynamic instability at presentation, and ICU-admission. Colonoscopy had a 78.8% diagnostic yield, with significantly higher hemostasis rate when performed within 24-hours than later (21.3% vs.10.8%, p = 0.027). Endoscopic hemostasis was associated with neither in-hospital mortality nor rebleeding. A definite or presumptive source of bleeding was disclosed in 90.4% of investigated patients.


      Mortality in LGIB patients is mainly related to age and comorbidities. Although early colonoscopy has a relevant diagnostic yield and is associated with higher therapeutic intervention rate, endoscopic hemostasis is not associated with improved clinical outcomes [ number: NCT 04364412].



      ASA (acetylsalicylic agent), DOAC (direct oral anticoagulant), DAPT (dual antiplatelet therapy GI, gastrointestinal), ICU (intensive care unit), IQR (inter-quartile range), LGIB (lower gastrointestinal bleeding), LMWH (low molecular weight heparin), CI (confidence interval), OR (odds ratio), SD (standard deviation), VKA (vitamin K antagonists)
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