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Hepatic encephalopathy 2018: A clinical practice guideline by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF)

Published:December 12, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2018.11.035

      Abstract

      Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common, worrisome and sometimes difficult to manage complication of end-stage liver disease. HE is often recurrent, requiring multiple hospital admissions. It can have serious implications in terms of a patient’s ability to perform complex tasks (for example driving), their earning capacity, their social and family roles. This guideline reviews current knowledge on HE definition, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment, both by general principles and by way of a summary of available drugs and treatment strategies. The quality of the published, pertinent evidence is graded, and practical recommendations are made. Where possible, these are placed within the Italian health service context, with reference to local diagnosis and management experience.

      Keywords

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