Gliadins are involved in gluten-related disorders and are responsible for the alteration of the cellular redox balance. It is not clear if the gliadin-related oxidative stress can induce DNA damage in enterocytes.
To investigate any possible genotoxicity caused by gliadin and to assess its relationship with oxidative stress in vitro and ex vivo.
Caco-2 cells were exposed for 6–12–24 h to increasing concentrations (250 μg/mL–1000 μg/mL) of digested gliadin. We investigated: cytotoxicity, oxidative balance (reactive oxygen species, ROS), DNA damage (comet assay and γ-H2AX detection), transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) activity and annexin V expression. H2AX and 8-OHG immunohistochemistry has been evaluated on duodenal biopsies of celiac subjects and controls.
Gliadin induced a significant increase (+50%) of ROS after 12 h of exposition starting with a 500 μg/mL dose of gliadin. Comet assay and γ-H2AX demonstrated DNA damage, evident at the gliadin concentration of 500 μg/mL after 24 h. TG2 activity increased in chromatin and cytoskeleton cellular compartments at different gliadin doses (250/500/1000 μg/mL). The γ-H2AX and 8-OHG immunohistochemistry was altered in the duodenal biopsies of celiac patients.
Gliadin induces cellular oxidative stress, DNA damage and pro-apoptotic stimulation in Caco-2 cells and in the duodenal mucosa of celiac patients.
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Published online: July 03, 2018
Accepted: June 20, 2018
Received in revised form: May 29, 2018
Received: January 16, 2018
© 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.