Alimentary Tract| Volume 48, ISSUE 7, P745-752, July 2016

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Innate and adaptive immunity in self-reported nonceliac gluten sensitivity versus celiac disease

Published:April 26, 2016DOI:



      Immune mechanisms have been implicated in nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), a condition characterized by intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms caused by the ingestion of gluten in non-celiac/non-wheat allergic individuals.


      We investigated innate and adaptive immunity in self-reported NCGS versus celiac disease (CD).


      In the supernatants of ex vivo-cultured duodenal biopsies from 14 self-reported NCGS patients, 9 untreated and 10 treated CD patients, and 12 controls we detected innate cytokines – interleukin (IL)-15, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-23, IL-27, IL-32α, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IFN-α-, adaptive cytokines – interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17A, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13-, chemokines – IL-8, CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL10-, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF).


      Mucosal innate and adaptive cytokines, chemokines and growth factors did not differ between self-reported NCGS, treated CD and controls. On the contrary, IL-6, IL-15, IL-27, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-23, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-8, CCL1 and CCL4 were significantly higher in untreated CD than in self-reported NCGS, treated CD and controls, while TSLP was significantly lower in untreated CD than in self-reported NCGS, treated CD and controls.


      In our hands, patients with self-reported NCGS showed no abnormalities of the mucosal immune response.


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